Balantis: Inflammation of the penis
Balanoposthitis: Inflammation of the foreskin
Bifid penis: A rare congental defect where a baby is born with a double penis
Blood-testis Barrier: A layer of cells that seperates blood from the part of the testis where baby sperm cells develop
Bulbourethral glands: Produces a clear liquid known as pre-ejaculate which lubricates the urethra
Carcinoma of the penis: Penis cancer
Capacitation: Just before fertilizing the egg, the sperm sheds all its food stores and makes a dash for it
Chordee: A condition where the head of the penis curves downward or upward
Circumcision: Surgical removal of the foreskin
Corpus Spongiosum: Erection puts pressure on the urethra, the main channel in the penis. The corpus spongiosum prevents it from pinching, keeping the pipe open for ejaculation.
Couvade syndrome: Also called “sympathetic pregnancy” is a condition where men experience symptoms of pregnancy along side their partner.
Cowper’s Gland: Another name for bulbourethral gland,
Cremaster muscle: The muscle that raises and lowers the testes in response to temperature. Drawing them up when it is cool and letting them hang freely when warm.
Cremasteric reflex: A reflex that causes the cremaster muscle to contract and pull up the testicle when the inner theigh is stroked
Cryopreservation: Freezing cells – such as eggs, sperm or embryos – to use later. Often used for sperm donation and fertility preservation.
Cryptorchidism: Medical term for undecended testicles
Deferentectomy: Commonly known as a vasectomy, is a surgery that cuts the vas deferens preventing sperm from being ejaculated
Dihydrotestosterone: (DHT) A potent form of testosterone.
Diphallia: Rare condition where a baby is born with two penises
Ductus deferens: Another name for the vas deferens
Ectopic testis: A testicle that has not decended properly and ended up in a strange place
Ejaculation : Ejection of semen
Ejaculatory duct: A group of tubes and glands that prepare semen for ejaculation.
Ejaculatory duct obstruction: Blockage of the ejaculatory duct which can cause male infertility, aspermia, azoospermia or very low volumes of semen
Epididymectomy: Surgical removal of the epididymis
Epididymis: A 19 – 22 ft long tightly coiled tube that stores sperm.
Epididymitis: One of common causes of scrotal pain in adult men (besides being kicked in the balls)
Epispadias: A rare malformation of the penis where the hole is on the shaft rather than the tip
Erection: The stiffening of the penis during arousal
Erectile dysfunction: The inability to develop or maintain an erection
Estradiol: A form of estrogen
Follicle-stimulating hormone: (FHS) A hormone that encourages sperm cells to multiply
Foreskin : piece of skin that covers the head of the penis
Frenulum: Tissue that connects the foreskin to the head of the penis that helps the forskin contract
Genitourinary medicine: The branch of medicine that deals with sexually-transmitted diseases
Glans: The head of the penis
Globozoospermia: A condition where the sperm do not develop acrosomes, or protein hats, necessary for penetrating the egg
Gynecomastia: The medical term for man boobs
Hamster zona-free ovum test: A test to see if sperm have the ability to penetrate an egg
Hematocele: A condition when blood collects around the testicle
Hirsuties coronae glandis: Little, naturally occurring, bumps on the ridge around the head of the penis
Human chorionic gonadotropin: A hormone produced by a fertilized egg which is detected by pregnancy tests
Hydrocele: The collection of water around the testicle
Hyperactivation: Super high motility of sperm to help penetrate egg
Hypogonadism: Low T
Hypospadias: A birth defect where the urethra doesn’t open at the tip of the penis but rather on the underside or even at the base.
Hypospermia: Condition where a man has an unusually low amount of semen
Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis: Cooperation between glands in brain and testicles to produce hormones necessary for reproduction
Intracervical insemination: (ICI) The easiest form of artificial insemination where semen is injected at the entrance of the cervix
Intrauterine insemination (IUI) Artificial insemenation where semen is injected directly into the uterus.
In vitro fertilization: (IVF) A high tech method of conceveiving where the woman’s eggs are harvested and mixed with sperm in a dish to produce an embryo which is placed back into the uterus.
Klinefelters syndrome: A genetic disorder where men have an extra X chromosome which can lead to Low T and or reduced fertility.
Leydig Cell: The cells in the testicle responsible for producing testosterone.
Libido: Sex drive or overall desire to have sex.
Lobules of testis: Supporting tissue in the testicle
Luteinizing Hormone: (LH) Hormone that tells the testicle to produce testosterone
Male genital neoplasia: Forms of cancer that attack the male reproductive tract
Male Reproductive Tract : All parts of the male body give him the ability to have children
Microorchidism: A genetic disorder that causes abnormally small testicles
Micropenis: An unusually small penis (less than 3 in) found in approximately 1 out of 200 men.
Monorchism: The condition where a man only has a single testicle which can happen due to birth defect or as a result of cancer or injury
Morphology: The shape and structure of sperm.
Nilutamide: A medication used to treat prostate cancer that blocks testosterone
Nocturnal penile tumescence: The medical term for night wood.
Oligozoospermia: Medical term for low sperm count
Orchitis: Inflammation of the testicle
Orchidometer: A medical instrument used to measure the volume of the testicle
Pampiniform venous plexus: A network of small veins in the scrutum
Paraphimosis: A medical condition where the foreskin gets trapped behind the glans.
Penile agenesis: A birth defect where a baby boy is born without a penis.
Penile fracture: The rupture of supporting tissue in the penis that occurs when too much force is applied to an erect penis.
Penis : Male sexual organ
Peyronie’s disease: Chronic inflammation of supportive tissue in the penis that can cause pain, abnormal curvature, erectile dysfunction and reduction in size
Phimosis: A medical condition where the foreskin can’t be fully retracted over glans
Polyorchidism: A rare condition where a man has more than two testicles
Premature ejaculation: A condition where a man ejaculates sooner than he would like to (usually under 2 minutes)
Preputial Mucosa: Inside of the foreskin
Priapism: A painful condition where an erection lasts longer than 4 hours
Prolactin: Versitile hormone that is involved with a number of reproductive activities in both men and women. High levels of prolactin have been linked with low T and erectile dysfunction
Prostate cancer: Cancer that develops in the prostate commonly developing in men over 50
Prostatitis: Inflammation of the prostate gland
Prostatomegaly: Medical term for enlarged prostate
Retrograde ejaculation: A condition where semen is ejaculated “backwards.” Instead of exiting out of the penis, it goes into the bladder.
Semen : White liquid ejaculated from man.
Semen Analysis: The clinical test that exams the quality of semen
Semen Quality : The health / fertilty of semen
Seminal vesicles: Secrete the majority of seminal fluid.
Seminiferous Tubules: Small tubes in the testicles responsible for creating sperm
Sertoli Cell: Cells in the testicle that “nurse” young sperm and help them develop
Sertoli cell-only syndrome: A condition that causes a man to be sterile
Smegma: Gunk that collects under the foreskin
Sperm : Cells that fertilize eggs to make babies
Spermatic Cord: A cord that contains nerves, tubes and blood vessels that connects the testicle to the rest of the body.
Sperm granulomas: A lump of sperm that can build up internally in vasectomized men
Sperm motility: The ability of sperm to swim
Spermatocele: A harmless cyst in the testicle that can contain sperm
Spermatocyte : Baby Sperm
Spermatogenesis: The process of creating new sperm
Spermatid : Teenage Sperm
Spermatozoa: Scientific name for sperm
Spermatogonium : Cells that make sperm
Spermatogenesis : Creation of sperm
Spermatotoxins: Chemicals that are toxic to sperm
Testicular cancer: With 7,500 – 8,000 diagnosis a year, testicular cancer most common form of cancer found in men from 20 – 39
Testicular microlithiasis: An unusual condition where tiny bumps (detectable by ultrasound) develop in the testicle.
Testicular torsion: Occurs when the spermatic cord gets twisted and cuts off blood supply to the testicle.
Testicular toxins: Known toxins that affect testicle health and fertility
Testosterone : Hormone responsible for growth of baby sperm and sex characteristics of men such as hairiness and deep voice
Teratozoospermia: Condition where a large portion of sperm have abnormal shape
Thyroid-stimulating hormone: (TSH) Hormone responsible for metabolism
Tumescence: The medical word for getting a hard on.
Tunica Vaginalis: Tissue that surrounds the testicle
Tunica Albuginea: Supportive tissue found in the penis and testicle
Urology: The branch of medicine that focuses on the male reproductive organs and the male and female urinary tracts
Varicocele: The enlargement of veins in and around the testicle which can contribute to sub-fertility in men
Vas Deferens: The main tube that transports sperm from the testicle to the penis in preparation for ejaculation.
Vasectomy: A surgery to sterilize men that usually involves cutting the vas deferens so that sperm is unable to get transported out of the testicle.
Vasectomy reversal : A surgury to rejoin the vas deferens and regain fertility.
Vasoepididymostomy: Vasectomy reversal procedure
Vasovasostomy : Vasectomy reversal procedure