PROLACTIN IS A PITUITARY HORMONE that plays a pivotal role in a variety of reproductive functions. Hyperprolactinemia is a common condition that can result from a number of causes, including medication use and hypothyroidism as well as pituitary disorders. Depending on the cause and consequences of the hyperprolactinemia, selected patients require treatment. The underlying cause, sex, age and reproductive status must be considered. We describe the diagnostic approach and management of hyperprolactinemia in various clinical settings, with emphasis on newer diagnostic strategies and the role of various therapeutic options, including treatment with selective dopamine agonists.